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    Such fee shall be always covered with appropriate receipt clearly showing the amount paid. (i) The Secretary of Labor and Employment, the Commission or the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators shall decide or resolve the dispute within thirty (30) calendar days from the date of the assumption of jurisdiction or the certification or submission of the dispute, as the case may be. No strike or lockout shall be declared after assumption of jurisdiction by the President or the Secretary or after certification or submission of the dispute to compulsory or voluntary arbitration or during the pendency of cases involving the same grounds for the strike or lockout. - The Secretary of Labor and Employment or his duly authorized representative is hereby empowered to inquire into the financial activities of legitimate labor organizations upon the filing of a complainant under oath and duly supported by the written consent of at least twenty percent (20%) of the total membership of the labor organization concerned and to examine their books of accounts and other records to determine compliance or non-compliance with the law and to prosecute any violations of the law and the union constitution and by-laws: Provided, That such inquiry or examination shall not be conducted during the sixty (60) day freedom period nor within thirty (30) days immediately preceding the date of election of union officials. (b) The Secretary of Labor and Employment or his duly authorized representatives may from time to time call a national, regional, or industrial tripartite conference of representatives of government, workers and employers for the consideration and adoption of voluntary codes of principles designed to promote industrial peace based on social justice or to align labor movement relations with established priorities in economic and social development. Their salaries shall be standardized by the National Assembly as provided for in the new constitution. (As amended by RA 6715) (b) Subject to the constitutional right of workers to security of tenure and their right to be protected against dismissal except for a just or authorized cause and without prejudice to the requirement of notice under Article 283 of this Code, the employer shall furnish the workers whose employment is so sought to be terminated a written notice containing a statement of the cause for termination and shall afford the latter ample opportunity to be heard and to defend himself with the assistance of his representative if he so desires in accordance with company rules and regulations promulgated pursuant to guidelines set by the Department of Labor and Employment. - Any person applying with a private fee charging employment agency for employment assistance shall not be charged any fee until he has obtained employment through his efforts or has actually commenced employment. - Whenever the public interest so requires, the Secretary of Labor may direct all persons or entities within the coverage of this Title to submit a report on the status of employment, including job vacancies; details of job requisitions, separation from jobs, wages, other terms and conditions, and other employment data. The Secretariat shall have the following functions and responsibilities: (a) To prepare and recommend the manpower plan for approval by the Council; (b) To recommend allocation of resources for the implementation of the manpower plan as approved by the Council; (c) To carry out the manpower plan as the implementing arm of the Council; (d) To effect the efficient performance of the functions of the Council and the achievement of the objectives of this Title; (e) To determine specific allocation of resources for projects to be undertaken pursuant to approved manpower plans; (f) To submit to the Council periodic reports on the progress and accomplishment of work programs; (g) To prepare for approval by the Council an annual report to the President on plans, programs and projects on manpower and out-of-school youth development; (h) To enter into agreements to implement approved plans and programs and perform any and all such acts as will fulfill the objectives of this Code as well as ensure the efficient performance of the functions of the Council; and (i) To perform such other functions as may be authorized by the Council. (h) Before or at any stage of the compulsory arbitration process, the parties may opt to submit their dispute to voluntary arbitration. - (a) No labor organization or employer shall declare a strike or lockout without first having bargained collectively in accordance with Title VII of this Book or without first having filed the notice required in the preceding Article or without the necessary strike or lockout vote first having been obtained and reported to the Department. Towards this end, workers and employers shall, as far as practicable, be represented in decision and policy-making bodies of the government. - The terms and conditions of employment of all government employees, including employees of government-owned and controlled corporations, shall be governed by the Civil Service Law, rules and regulations. - (a) All unions are authorized to collect reasonable membership fees, union dues, assessments and fines and other contributions for labor education and research, mutual death and hospitalization benefits, welfare fund, strike fund and credit and cooperative undertakings. 27, the Code of Agrarian Reforms and other existing laws and regulations. (e) “Private recruitment entity” means any person or association engaged in the recruitment and placement of workers, locally or overseas, without charging, directly or indirectly, any fee from the workers or employers. - (a) The Bureau of Employment Services shall be primarily responsible for developing and monitoring a comprehensive employment program. To formulate and develop plans and programs to implement the employment promotion objectives of this Title; 2. 247, July 24, 1987, Section 4 of which provides as follows: Structural Organizations. (e) No person engaged in picketing shall commit any act of violence, coercion or intimidation or obstruct the free ingress to or egress from the employer’s premises for lawful purposes, or obstruct public thoroughfares. In case of a lockout, the Department of Labor and Employment shall also conduct a referendum by secret balloting on the reduced offer of the union on or before the 30th day of the lockout. (e) The Secretary of Labor and Employment and the Secretary of the Budget shall cause to be created or reclassified in accordance with law such positions as may be necessary to carry out the objectives of this Code and cause the upgrading of the salaries of the personnel involved in the Labor Relations System of the Department. - Inasmuch as the old concept of land ownership by a few has spawned valid and legitimate grievances that gave rise to violent conflict and social tension and the redress of such legitimate grievances being one of the fundamental objectives of the New Society, it has become imperative to start reformation with the emancipation of the tiller of the soil from his bondage. 27 or the Land Reform Program of the Government shall not be transferable except by hereditary succession or to the Government in accordance with the provisions of Presidential Decree No. (d) “License” means a document issued by the Department of Labor authorizing a person or entity to operate a private employment agency. - All applicants for authority to hire or renewal of license to recruit are required to have such substantial capitalization as determined by the Secretary of Labor. The police force shall keep out of the picket lines unless actual violence or other criminal acts occur therein: Provided, That nothing herein shall be interpreted to prevent any public officers from taking any measure necessary to maintain peace and order, protect life and property, and/or enforce the law and legal order. When at least a majority of the union members vote to accept the improved offer, the striking workers shall immediately return to work and the employer shall thereupon readmit them upon the signing of the agreement. - Except on grounds of national security and public peace, no union members or union organizers may be arrested or detained for union activities without previous consultations with the Secretary of Labor and Employment. - The Department of Labor and Employment, at the initiative of the Secretary of Labor and Employment, shall extend special assistance to the organization for purposes of collective bargaining of the most underprivileged workers who, for reasons of occupation, organizational structure or insufficient incomes are not normally covered by major labor organizations or federations. - The Institute for Labor and Manpower Studies shall render technical and other forms of assistance to labor organizations and employer organizations in the field of labor education, especially pertaining to collective bargaining, arbitration, labor standards and the Labor Code of the Philippines in general. In all other disputes, docket fees may be assessed against the filing party, provided that in bargaining deadlocks, such fees shall be shared equally by the negotiating parties.

    - All rights and benefits granted to workers under this Code shall, except as may otherwise be provided herein, apply alike to all workers, whether agricultural or non-agricultural. (f) “Authority” means a document issued by the Department of Labor authorizing a person or association to engage in recruitment and placement activities as a private recruitment entity. To establish and maintain a registration and/or licensing system to regulate private sector participation in the recruitment and placement of workers, locally and overseas, and to secure the best possible terms and conditions of employment for Filipino contract workers and compliance therewith under such rules and regulations as may be issued by the Minister of Labor; 3. - The Administration shall consist of the Governing Board, the Office of the Administrator, the Offices of such number of Deputy Administrators as may be necessary, Office of the Director for each of the principal subdivisions of its internal structure. - Only Filipino citizens or corporations, partnerships or entities at least 75 percent of the authorized and voting capital stock of which is owned and controlled by Filipino citizens shall be permitted to participate in the recruitment and placement of workers, locally or overseas. When at least a majority of the board of directors or trustees or the partners holding the controlling interest in the case of a partnership vote to accept the reduced offer, the workers shall immediately return to work and the employer shall thereupon readmit them upon the signing of the agreement. Funds needed for this purpose shall be provided out of the Special Activities Fund appropriated by Batas Pambansa Blg. (f) A Special Voluntary Arbitration Fund is hereby established in the Board to subsidize the cost of voluntary arbitration in cases involving the interpretation and implementation of the Collective Bargaining Agreement, including the Arbitrator’s fees, and for such other related purposes to promote and develop voluntary arbitration. The decisions of the regional offices or the Bureau of Employment Services if so authorized by the Secretary of Labor and Employment as provided in this Article, shall be appealable to the National Labor Relations Commission upon the same grounds provided in Article 223 hereof. - Except as provided in Chapter II of this Title, no person or entity, other than the public employment offices, shall engage in the recruitment and placement of workers. [Abolished by BP 79 and replaced by the Commission on Filipino Overseas.] ART. The Department of Labor and Employment shall endeavor to enlighten and educate the workers and employees on their rights and responsibilities through labor education with emphasis on the policy thrusts of this Code. - Probationary employment shall not exceed six months from the date the employee started working, unless it is covered by an apprenticeship agreement stipulating a longer period. - An employer may terminate an employment for any of the following just causes: (a) Serious misconduct or willful disobedience by the employee of the lawful orders of his employer or representative in connection with his work; (b) Gross and habitual neglect by the employee of his duties; (c) Fraud or willful breach by the employee of the trust reposed in him by his employer or duly authorized representative; (d) Commission of a crime or offense by the employee against the person of his employer or any immediate member of his family or his duly authorized representative; and (e) Other causes analogous to the foregoing. - The employer may also terminate the employment of any employee due to the installation of labor-saving devices, redundancy, retrenchment to prevent losses or the closing or cessation of operation of the establishment or undertaking unless the closing is for the purpose of circumventing the provisions of this title, by serving a written notice on the workers and the Department of Labor and Employment at least one (1) month before the intended date thereof. The employer upon whom no such notice was served may hold the employee liable for damages. In all such cases, the employer shall reinstate the employee to his former position without loss of seniority rights if he indicates his desire to resume his work not later than one month from the resumption of operations of his employer or from his relief from the military or civic duty. In the absence of a retirement plan or agreement providing for retirement benefits of employees in the establishment, an employee upon reaching the age of sixty (60) years or more, but not beyond sixty-five (65) years which is hereby declared the compulsory retirement age, who has served at least five (5) years in the said establishment, may retire and shall be entitled to retirement pay equivalent to at least one-half (1/2) month salary for every year of service, a fraction of at least six (6) months being considered as one whole year. 3428, as amended, otherwise known as the Workmen’s Compensation Act, until March 31, 1976. Continuation of insurance policies and indemnity bonds. - This Code shall take effect six months after its promulgation. (b) The regional offices of the Ministry of Labor shall have the original and exclusive jurisdiction over all matters or cases involving employer-employee relations including money claims, arising out of or by virtue of any law or contracts involving Filipino workers for overseas employment except seamen: Provided, That the Bureau of Employment Service may, in the case of the National Capital Region, exercise such power, whenever the Minister of Labor deems it appropriate. generally to undertake such activities as may be appropriate to enhance such cooperative links. The decisions of the National Labor Relations Commission shall be final and unappealable. (h) In establishments where no legitimate labor organization exists, labor-management committees may be formed voluntarily by workers and employers for the purpose of promoting industrial peace. Closure of establishment and reduction of personnel. - (a) An employee may terminate without just cause the employee-employer relationship by serving a written notice on the employer at least one month in advance. - The bona fide suspension of the operation of a business or undertaking for a period not exceeding six months, or the fulfillment by the employee of a military or civic duty shall not terminate employment. In case of retirement, the employee shall be entitled to receive such retirement benefits as he may have earned under existing laws and any collective bargaining or other agreements: Provided, however, That an employee’s retirement benefits under any collective bargaining and other agreements shall not be less than those provided herein. - The Council shall have a Secretariat headed by a Director-General who shall be assisted by a Deputy Director-General, both of whom shall be career administrators appointed by the President of the Philippines on recommendation of the Secretary of Labor. The decision of the Secretary of Labor shall be final and executory. (g) When, in his opinion, there exists a labor dispute causing or likely to cause a strike or lockout in an industry indispensable to the national interest, the Secretary of Labor and Employment may assume jurisdiction over the dispute and decide it or certify the same to the Commission for compulsory arbitration. - The decision of the authorized agency of the Department of Labor and Employment may be appealed by any aggrieved person to the Secretary of Labor within five days from receipt of the decision. In every case, the union or the employer shall furnish the Department the results of the voting at least seven days before the intended strike or lockout, subject to the cooling-off period herein provided.For information about filtering tools, check this site.Before you can send a message, view private galleries and search for other horny members, you need to fill in this quick form to become a FREE member! - All doubts in the implementation and interpretation of the provisions of this Code, including its implementing rules and regulations, shall be resolved in favor of labor. (i) “Emigrant” means any person, worker or otherwise, who emigrates to a foreign country by virtue of an immigrant visa or resident permit or its equivalent in the country of destination. To develop a labor market information system ind of proper manpower and development planning; 6. 20 (National Seamen Board) were repealed by Executive Order 797, May 1, 1982 and Executive Order No. 3): (a) Regulate private sector participation in the recruitment and overseas placement of workers by setting up a licensing and registration system; (b) Formulate and implement, in coordination with appropriate entities concerned, when necessary, a system for promoting and monitoring the overseas employment of Filipino workers taking into consideration their welfare and the domestic manpower requirements; (c) Protect the rights of Filipino workers for overseas employment to fair and equitable recruitment and employment practices and ensure their welfare; (d) Exercise original and exclusive jurisdiction to hear and decide all claims arising out of an employer-employee relationship or by virtue of any law or contract involving Filipino workers for overseas employment including the disciplinary cases; and all pre-employment cases which are administrative in character involving or arising out of violation of requirement laws, rules and regulations including money claims arising therefrom, or violation of the conditions for issuance of license or authority to recruit workers. - No employer may hire a Filipino worker for overseas employment except through the Boards and entities authorized by the Secretary of Labor. The Office shall be a unit at the Office of the Secretary and shall initially be manned and operated by such personnel and through such funding as are available within the Department and its attached agencies. CHAPTER II Regulation of Recruitment and Placement Activities ART. Private sector participation in the recruitment and placement of workers. The amount of subsidy in appropriate cases shall be determined by the Board in accordance with established guidelines issued by it upon the recommendation of the Council. Such rules and regulations shall become effective fifteen days after announcement of their adoption in newspapers of general circulation. (h) “Overseas employment” means employment of a worker outside the Philippines. To establish and maintain a registration and/or work permit system to regulate the employment of aliens; 5. Order 797 created the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration which assumed the functions of the OEDB and NSB and the overseas employment functions of the Bureau of Employment Services, which were abolished. Order 247 provided for the following POEA functions (Sec. - (a) Pursuant to the national policy to maintain close ties with Filipino migrant communities and promote their welfare as well as establish a data bank ind of national manpower policy information, an Office of Emigrant Affairs is hereby created in the Department of Labor. - It shall be mandatory for all Filipino workers abroad to remit a portion of their foreign exchange earnings to their families, dependents, and/or beneficiaries in the country in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Labor. Each of the principal substantive subdivisions of the Administration shall be headed by a Director and shall have such departments and units as may be necessary.) ART. They shall have the power to impose and collect fees from employers concerned, which shall be deposited to the respective accounts of said Boards and be used by them exclusively to promote their objectives. - Travel agencies and sales agencies ofrline companies are prohibited from engaging in the business of recruitment and placement of workers for overseas employment whether for profit or not. Continuing funds needed for this purpose in the initial yearly amount of fifteen million pesos (P15,000,000.00) shall be provided in the 1989 and subsequent annual General Appropriations Acts. - No person shall institute any action for the enforcement of any apprenticeship agreement or damages for breach of any such agreement, unless he has exhausted all available administrative remedies. The Department may, at its own initiative or upon the request of any affected party, supervise the conduct of the secret balloting. If they do not have adequate facilities for the purpose, the Department of Labor and Employment may perform the service free of charge. Appropriate rules in this connection shall be promulgated by the Secretary of Labor and Employment as the need arises; and (c) Where services of foreign technicians are utilized by private companies in apprenticeable trades, said companies are required to set up appropriate apprenticeship programs. The decision shall be valid for the duration of the dispute based on substantially the same grounds considered when the strike or lockout vote was taken. - The Secretary of Labor or his duly authorized representatives may, at any time, inspect the premises, books of accounts and records of any person or entity covered by this Title, require it to submit reports regularly on prescribed forms, and act on violations of any provisions of this Title. (b) Illegal recruitment when committed by a syndicate or in large scale shall be considered an offense involving economic sabotage and shall be penalized in accordance with Article 39 hereof. - Any alien seeking admission to the Philippines for employment purposes and any domestic or foreign employer who desires to engage an alien for employment in the Philippines shall obtain an employment permit from the Department of Labor and Employment. - (a) After the issuance of employment permit, the alien shall not transfer to another job or change his employer without prior approval of Secretary of Labor. - Any employer employing non-resident foreign nationals on the effective date of this Code shall submit a list of such nationals to the Secretary of Labor and Employment within 30 days after such date indicating their names, citizenship, foreign and local addresses, nature of employment and status of stay in the country. (b) “Entrepreneurship” shall mean training for self-employment or assisting individual or small industries within the purview of this Title. In addition, the President shall appoint the following members from the private sector; two representatives of national organizations of employers; two representatives of national workers organizations and one representative of national family and youth organizations, each for a term of three years. Thereafter, it shall be the controlling plan for the development of manpower resources for the entire country in accordance with the national development plan. The centers shall be administered and operated under such rules and regulations as may be established by the Council. For this purpose, existing manpower training programs in government and in the private sector shall be reported to the Council which may regulate such programs to make them conform with national development programs. The maintenance and operations of the Industry Boards shall be financed through a funding scheme under such rates or fees and manners of collection and disbursement as may be determined by the Council. The Director-General, Deputy Director-General and Executive Directors shall be natural-born citizens, between thirty and fifty years of age at the time of appointment, with a master’s degree, or its equivalent, and experience in national planning and development of human resources. - As used in this Title: (a) “Apprenticeship” means practical training on the job supplemented by related theoretical instruction. - Only employers in the highly technical industries may employ apprentices and only in apprenticeable occupation approved by the Secretary of Labor and Employment. Apprenticeship agreements providing for wage rates below the legal minimum wage, which in no case shall start below 75 per cent of the applicable minimum wage, may be entered into only in accordance with apprenticeship programs duly approved by the Secretary of Labor and Employment. An apprenticeship agreement with a minor shall be signed in his behalf by his parent or guardian or, if the latter is not available, by an authorized representative of the Department of Labor and Employment, and the same shall be binding during its lifetime. In line with the national concern for and the highest respect accorded to the right of patients to life and health, strikes and lockouts in hospitals, clinics and similar medical institutions shall, to every extent possible, be avoided, and all serious efforts, not only by labor and management but government as well, be exhausted to substantially minimize, if not prevent, their adverse effects on such life and health, through the exercise, however legitimate, by labor of its right to strike and by management to lockout. The Ministry of Labor and Employment or any law enforcement officer may initiate complaints under this Article. - As used in this Title: (a) “Manpower” shall mean that portion of the nation’s population which has actual or potential capability to contribute directly to the production of goods and services. The Director-General of the Council shall have no vote. This manpower plan shall, after adoption by the Council, be updated annually and submitted to the President for his approval. - The Council shall establish a National Manpower Skills Center and regional and local training centers for the purpose of promoting the development of skills. The Council shall thereafter administer the national skills standards. In order to integrate the national manpower development effort, all manpower training schemes as provided for in this Code shall be coordinated with the Council particularly those having to do with the setting of skills standards. - The Council shall establish industry boards to assist in the establishment of manpower development schemes, trades and skills standards and such other functions as will provide direct participation of employers and workers in the fulfillment of the Council’s objectives, in accordance with guidelines to be established by the Council and in consultation with the National Economic and Development Authority. The Bureau of Employment Services shall render assistance to the Council in the measurement of unemployment and under-employment, conduct of local manpower resource surveys and occupational studies including an inventory of the labor force, establishment and maintenance without charge of a national register of technicians who have successfully completed a training program under this Title, and skilled manpower including its publication, and maintenance of an adequate and up-to-date system of employment information. The Executive-Directors of the Office of Manpower Planning and Development, the Office of Vocational Preparation and the National Manpower Skills Center shall have the rank and emoluments of a bureau director and shall be subject to Civil Service Law, rules and regulations. The period of apprenticeship shall not exceed six months. - Every apprenticeship agreement shall be signed by the employer or his agent, or by an authorized representative of any of the recognized organizations, associations or groups and by the apprentice. - Any firm, employer, group or association, industry organization or civic group wishing to organize an apprenticeship program may choose from any of the following apprenticeship schemes as the training venue of apprentices: (a) Apprenticeship conducted entirely by and within the sponsoring firm, establishment or entity; (b) Apprenticeship entirely within a Department of Labor training center or other public training institution; or (c) Initial training in trade fundamentals in a training center or other institution with subsequent actual work participation within the sponsoring firm or entity during the final stage of training. The Secretary of Labor and Employment or the Commission may seek the assistance of law enforcement agencies to ensure compliance with this provision as well as with such orders as he may issue to enforce the same. 442 – (AS AMENDED) A DECREE INSTITUTING A LABOR CODE, THEREBY REVISING AND CONSOLIDATING LABOR AND SOCIAL LAWS TO AFFORD PROTECTION TO LABOR, PROMOTE EMPLOYMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT AND ENSURE INDUSTRIAL PEACE BASED ON SOCIAL JUSTICE PRELIMINARY TITLE CHAPTER I General Provisions ARTICLE 1. Order 797.) (c) The Minister of Labor shall have the power to impose and collect fees, based on rate recommended by the Bureau of Employment Services. For this purpose, a case or matter shall be deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading or memorandum required by the rules of the Commission or by the Commission itself, or the Labor Arbiter or the Director of the Bureau of Labor Relations or Med-Arbiter, or the Regional Director. - In cases of regular employment, the employer shall not terminate the services of an employee except for a just cause or when authorized by this Title. An employment shall be deemed to be casual if it is not covered by the preceding paragraph: Provided, That any employee who has rendered at least one year of service, whether such service is continuous or broken, shall be considered a regular employee with respect to the activity in which he is employed and his employment shall continue while such activity exists. An employee who is allowed to work after a probationary period shall be considered a regular employee. In case of retrenchment to prevent losses and in cases of closures or cessation of operations of establishment or undertaking not due to serious business losses or financial reverses, the separation pay shall be equivalent to one (1) month pay or at least one-half (1/2) month pay for every year of service, whichever is higher. Retail, service and agricultural establishments or operations employing not more than ten (10) employees or workers are exempted from the coverage of this provision. - All money claims arising from employer-employee relations accruing during the effectivity of this Code shall be filed within three years from the time the cause of action accrued; otherwise they shall be forever barred. Secretary of Labor and Employment to initiate integration of maternity leave benefits. Funding of the Overseas Employment Development Board and the National Seamen Board. Thereafter, said office shall be considered abolished and all officials and personnel thereof shall be transferred to and mandatorily absorbed by the Department of Labor and Employment, subject to Presidential Decree No. Claims may be filed against the insurance carriers and/or self-insured employers for causes of action which accrued during the existence of said policies or authority to self-insure. - The Court of Industrial Relations and the National Labor Relations Commission established under Presidential Decree No. All unexpended funds, properties, equipment and records of the Court of Industrial Relations, and such of its personnel as may be necessary, are hereby transferred to the Commission and to its regional branches. All provisions of existing laws, orders, decrees, rules and regulations inconsistent herewith are likewise repealed.

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