Cleveland is also home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City".
Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city.
Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra.
The city's population reached its peak of 914,808, and in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time.
In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown.
Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, and seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937.
Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker.
In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes (who served from 1968 to 1971).
Industrial restructuring, particularly in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous jobs in Cleveland and the region, and the city suffered economically.
In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade.
The area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal.